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Common Expressions: orogeny

Expressions Definition
Alleghenian orogeny The Alleghenian orogeny or Appalachian orogeny is the geological mountain-forming event (orogeny) that formed the Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Mountains. (references)
Antler orogeny The Antler orogeny is a mountain-building episode that is named for Antler Peak, at Battle Mountain, Nevada. the orogeny extensively deformed Paleozoic rocks of the Great Basin in Nevada and western Utah during Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time. In the late Devonian, the Antler volcanic island arc, approaching the west coast of North America, which was a passive margin with deep embayments, river deltas and estuaries, in today’s Idaho and Nevada, finally reached the steep slope of the continental shelf and began to uplift deep water deposits [http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/devpaleo.html]. (references)
Caledonian orogeny The Caledonian orogeny is a mountain building event recorded in the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. This event occurred during the Silurian and Devonian Periods of the Palaeozoic Era, roughly 444-416 Mya. This orogeny has been named for Caledonia, the ancient name of the Scottish highlands. (references)
Grenville orogeny The Grenville orogeny was an episode of mountain-building (orogeny) associated with the assembly of the ancient supercontinent Rodinia. The Grenville orogeny occurred in the late Proterozoic eon, 1300-1000 million years ago (mya), as numerous continental plates collided around the edges of North America, forming folded mountains. (references)
Laramide orogeny The Laramide orogeny was a 30 million year period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago, and ended in the Late Paleogene, 40 million years ago. The Laramide orogeny occurred in a series of pulses, with quiescent phases intervening. The major feature that was created by this orogeny was the Rocky Mountains, but evidence of this orogeny can be found from Alaska to northern Mexico, with the easternmost extent of the mountain-building represented by the Black Hills of South Dakota. The phenomenon is named for the Laramie Mountains of eastern Wyoming.(references)
Nevadan orogeny The Nevadan Orogeny was a major mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic (between about 180 and 146 million years ago). The Nevadan orogeny was the first of three major mountain building episodes to transform Western North America between the Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic Eras, the latter two being the Sevier and Laramide orogeny, chronologically. Much like the two orogenies that followed, the Nevadan was caused by the subduction of oceanic lithosphere at a subduction zone running along the edge of the North American continent. The subduction was relatively slow due to a reduced rate of sea floor spreading, this resulted in relatively cool oceanic crust descending into the lithosphere very quickly, and steeply beneath the edge of the continent. As a result, magma rose from the melting oceanic crust producing a chain of volcanoes located close to continent’s edge. This volcanic activity over the course of several million years would form what is today the Sierra Nevada of California. (references)
Sevier orogeny The Sevier orogeny was a mountain-building event that affected western North America between approximately 150 million years ago (Ma), and 80 Ma. The Sevier River area of central Utah is the namesake of this event, which was a result of convergent boundary tectonism; a fold-thrust belt formed during this event. (references)
Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight region. The effects of this orogeny are most apparent throughout New England, but the sediments derived from mountainous areas formed in the northeast can be traced throughout the Appalachians and midcontinental North America. (references)
Uralian orogeny The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of geological events that raised the Ural Mountains starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, ca. 318-299 and 299-251 Mya, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic-early Jurassic times. In terms of plate tectonics and continental drift, the Uralian resulted from a southwestern movement of the Siberian Plate, catching a smaller landmass, Kazakhstania, between it and the nearly completely assembled supercontinent, Pangaea. The mountains rose as the edge of Kazakhstania rode over the European plate. This event was the last stage in the assembly of Pangaea. (references)
Variscan orogeny The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. This occurred in early Paleozoic times (from ~390Ma to ~310Ma) and reflects continental collision between Laurasia and Gondwana to form Pangea. This early collision was a precursor to the collision that caused the Variscan-Allegheny-Ouachita orogeny in Pennsylvanian times. (references)
Source: compiled by the editor from various references; see credits. Top

Specialty Expressions: orogeny

Expressions Domain Definition
Algoman orogeny Mining Orogeny and accompanying granitic emplacement that affected Precambrian rocks of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario about 2.4 billon years ago; it is synonymous with the Kenoran orogeny of the Canadian classification. (references)
Appalachian orogeny Mining A. Late Paleozoic Era diastrophism beginning perhaps in the Late Devonian Period and continuing until the end of the Permian Period b. A period of intense mountain-building movements in the late Paleozoic Era, during which the deposits in the Appalachian and Cordilleran geosynclines were folded to form the Appalachian and Palaeocordilleran mountains. Equivalent to the Armorican and Hercynian movements in Europe. Syn: Appalachian revolution. (references)
Laramide orogeny Mining A time of deformation, typically recorded in the eastern Rocky Mountains of the United States, whose several phases extended from late Cretaceous until the end of the Paleocene. It is named for the Laramie Formation of Wyoming and Colorado, probably a synorogenic deposit. (references)
Nevadan orogeny Mining Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous diastrophism in Western North America. (references)
Pasadenian orogeny Mining Mid-Pleistocene diastrophism. (references)
Taconic orogeny Geography Period of intense folding that affected parts of eastern North America at the end of the Ordovician. Source: European Union. (references)
Source: compiled by the editor from various references; see credits. Top

Extended Definition: orogeny


Orogeny

Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)          Shield      Platform      Orogen      Basin      Large igneous province      Extended crust   Oceanic crust:      0–20 Ma      20–65 Ma      >65 Ma

Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)

     Shield     Platform     Orogen     Basin     Large igneous province     Extended crust Oceanic crust:     0–20 Ma     20–65 Ma     >65 Ma

Orogeny (Greek for “mountain generating”) is the process of natural mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within a time frame.

Orogenic events occur solely as a result of the processes of plate tectonics; the problems which were investigated and resolved by the study of orogenesis contributed greatly to the theory of plate tectonics, coupled with study of flora and fauna, geography and mid ocean ridges in the 1950s and 1960s.

The physical manifestations of orogenesis (the process of orogeny) are orogenic belts or orogens. An orogen is different from a mountain range in that an orogen may be completely eroded away, and only recognizable by studying (old) rocks that bear the traces of the orogeny. Orogens are usually long, thin, arcuate tracts of rocks which have a pronounced linear structure resulting in terranes or blocks of deformed rocks, separated generally by dipping thrust faults. These thrust faults carry relatively thin plates (which are called nappes, and differ from tectonic plates) of rock in from the margins of the compressing orogen to the core, and are intimately associated with folds and the development of metamorphism.

The topographic height of orogenic mountains is related to the principle of isostasy, where the gravitational force of the upthrust mountain range of light, continental crust material is balanced against its buoyancy relative to the dense mantle.

Erosion inevitably takes its course, removing much of the mountains, leaving the core or mountain roots, which may be exhumed by further isostatic events balancing out the loss of elevated mass. This is the final form of the majority of old orogenic belts, being a long arcuate strip of crystalline metamorphic rocks sequentially below younger sediments which are thrust atop them and dip away from the orogenic core.

History

Before geology, the presence of mountains was explained in Christian contexts as a result of the Biblical Deluge, for Neoplatonic thought, which influenced early Christian writers, assumed that a perfect Creation would have to have been in the form of a perfect sphere. Such thinking persisted into the eighteenth century.

Orogeny was used by Amanz Gressly (1840) and Jules Thurmann (1854) as orogenic in terms of the creation of mountain elevations, as the termmountain building was still used to describe the processes.

Elie de Beaumont (1852) used the evocative “Jaws of a Vise” theory to explain orogeny, but was more concerned with the height rather than the implicit structures orogenic belts created and contained. His theory essentially held that mountains were created by the squeezing of certain rocks.

Eduard Suess (1875) recognised the importance of horizontal movement of rocks. The concept of a precursor geosyncline or initial downward warping of the solid earth (Hall, 1859) prompted James Dwight Dana (1873) to include the concept of compression in the theories surrounding mountain-building. With hindsight, we can discount Dana’s conjecture that this contraction was due to the cooling of the Earth (aka the cooling earth theory).

The cooling Earth theory was the chief paradigm for most geologists until the 1960s. It was, in the context of orogeny, contested hotly by proponents of vertical movements in the crust (similar to tephrotectonics), or convection within the asthenosphere or mantle.

Gustav Steinmann (1906) recognised different classes of orogenic belts, including the Alpine type orogenic belt, typified by a flysch and molasse geometry to the sediments; ophiolite sequences, tholeiitic basalts, and a nappe style fold structure.

In terms of recognising orogeny as an eventLeopold von Buch (1855) recognised that orogenies could be placed in time by bracketing between the youngest deformed rock and the oldest undeformed rock, a principle which is still in use today, though commonly investigated by geochronology using radiometric dating.

H.J. Zwart (1967) drew attention to the metamorphic differences in orogenic belts, proposing three types, modified by W. S. Pitcher (1979);

  • Hercynotype (back-arc basin type);
    • Shallow, low-pressure metamorphism; thin metamorphic zones
    • Metamorphism dependent on increase in temperature
    • Abundant granite and migmatite
    • Few ophiolites, ultramafic rocks virtually absent
    • very wide orogen with small and slow uplift
    • nappe structures rare
  • Alpinotype (ocean trench style);
    • deep, high pressure, thick metamorphic zones
    • metamorphism of many facies, dependent on decrease in pressure
    • few granites or migmatites
    • abundant ophiolites with ultramafic rocks
    • Relatively narrow orogen with large and rapid uplift
    • Nappe structures predominant
  • Cordilleran (arc) type;
    • dominated by calc-alkaline igneous rocks,andesites, granite batholiths
    • general lack of migmatites, low geothermal gradient
    • lack of ophiolite and abyssal sedimentary rocks (black shale, chert, etcetera)
    • low-pressure metamorphism, moderate uplift
    • lack of nappes

The advent of plate tectonics has explained the vast majority of orogenic belts and their features. The cooling earth theory (principally advanced byDescartes) is dispensed with, and tephrotectonic style vertical movements have been explained primarily by the process of isostasy.

Some oddities exist, where simple collisional tectonics are modified in a transform plate boundary, such as in New Zealand, or where island arc orogenies, for instance in New Guinea occur away from a continental backstop. Further complications such as Proterozoic continent-continent collisional orogens, explicitly the Musgrave Block in Australia, previously inexplicable (see Dennis, 1982) are being brought to light with the advent of seismic imaging techniques which can resolve the deep crust structure of orogenic belts.

Physiography

The process of orogeny can take tens of millions of years and build mountains from plains or even the ocean floor. Orogeny can occur due to continental collision or volcanic activity. Frequently, rock formations that undergo orogeny are severely deformed and undergo metamorphism. During orogeny, deeply buried rocks may be pushed to the surface. Sea bottom and near shore material may cover some or all of the orogenic area. If the orogeny is due to two continents colliding, the resulting mountains can be very high (see Himalaya).

Orogeny usually produces long linear structures, known as orogenic belts. Generally, orogenic belts consist of long parallel strips of rock exhibiting similar characteristics along the length of the belt. Orogenic belts are associated with subduction zones, which consume crust, produce volcanoes, and build island arcs. These island arcs may be added to a continent during an orogenic event.

List of orogenies

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

North American orogenies

  • Wopmay orogeny
    • Along western edge of Canadian shield, 2100-1900 mya.
  • Hudsonian orogeny or Trans-Hudson orogeny
    • Extends from Hudson Bay west into Saskatchewan then south through the western Dakotas and Nebraska. Result of the collision of the Superior craton with the Hearne craton and the Wyoming craton during the Proterozoic.
    • Lasted from 2000-1800 mya.
  • Penokean orogeny
    • Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, U. S. A. and southern Ontario, Canada, 1850-1840 mya.
  • Big Sky orogeny
    • Proterozoic collision between the Hearne craton and the Wyoming craton in southwest Montana, 1770 mya.
  • Ivanpah orogeny
    • Mojave province, south western USA
  • Yavapai orogeny
    • mid to south western USA, circa 1750 mya.
  • Mazatzal orogeny
    • mid to south western USA, circa 1600 mya.
  • Grenville orogeny
    • Worldwide during the late Proterozoic, 1300-1000 mya. Associated with the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. Formed folded mountains in Eastern North America from Newfoundland to North Carolina, 1100-1000 mya.
Taconic orogeny

Taconic orogeny
  • Caledonian orogeny
    • the Taconic phase in the NE U.S. and Canada during the Ordovician Period.
    • the Acadian phase in the Eastern U.S. during Silurian and Devonian Periods.
  • Appalachian orogeny, usually seen as the same as the Variscan orogeny in Europe.
    • Appalachian Mountains is a well studied orogenic belt resulting from a late Paleozoic collision between North America and Africa.
    • Taconic orogeny
    • Acadian orogeny
    • Alleghenian orogeny
  • Ouachita orogeny
    • Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma is an orogenic belt that dates from the late Paleozoic Era and is most likely a continuation of the Appalachian orogeny west across the Mississippi embayment - Reelfoot Rift zone.
  • Antler orogeny
    • Ancestral Sierra Nevada western United States.
    • Late Devonian – early Mississippian.
  • Innuitian orogeny or Ellesmerian orogeny
    • Innuitian Mountains, Canadian Arctic, extending from Ellesmere Island to Melville Island, Mississippian 345 mya.
  • Sonoma orogeny
    • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 270 – 240 million years ago.
  • Nevadan orogeny
    • Developed along western North America during the Jurassic Period.
  • Sevier orogeny
    • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 140 – 50 million years ago.
  • Laramide orogeny
    • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 40-70 Myr ago.

European orogenies

  • The Caledonian orogeny
    • Formation of the highlands of western Norway, Britain and Ireland in the Silurian Period.
  • Uralian orogeny
    • Formation of the Ural Mountains, Eurasia, during the Permian Period.
  • The Variscan orogeny (also called the Hercynian orogeny)
    • Formation of the mountains of western Iberia, SW Ireland, SW England, central France, southern Germany and Czechoslovakia during the Devonian and Carboniferous Periods.
  • The Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
    • the Formation of the Alps during the Eocene through Miocene Periods.
    • the Carpathian orogeny building the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe during the Miocene Period.
    • the Hellenic orogeny in Greece and the Aegean area during Eocene through Miocene Periods.
  • Ongoing (happening now):
    • the Mediterranean Ridge.

Asian orogenies

  • The Aravalli-Delhi Orogen (precambrian)
  • The Altaid Orogeny (Paleozoic)
  • The Cimmerian and Cathayasian orogenies
    • Active through Triassic and Jurassic Periods along south and southeast Asia.
  • Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
    • The Himalayan orogeny, forming the Himalaya Mountains, as a result of the ongoing collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate.

South American orogenies

African orogenies

Australian orogenies

  • Sleaford Orogeny (2440-2420 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
  • Glenburgh Orogeny (c. 2005 – 1920 Ma), Glenburgh Terrane, Western Australia.
  • Kimban Orogeny (c. 1845-1700 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
  • Yapungku Orogeny (c. 1700 Ma), North Yilgarn craton margin, Western Australia
  • Mangaroon Orogeny (c.1680 – 1620 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
  • Kararan Orogeny (1650- Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
  • Barramundi Orogeny (c. 1600 Ma), MacArthur Basin, northern Australia
  • Isan Orogeny, c. 1600 Ma, Mt Isa Block, Queensland
  • Olarian Orogeny, Olary Block, South Australia
  • Capricorn Orogeny, Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia
  • Musgrave Orogeny (c. 1080 Ma), Musgrave Block, Central Australia.
  • Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920 – 850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
  • Petermann Orogeny (c. 550-535 Ma late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian), Central Australia
  • Delamerian Orogeny, South Australia and Victoria, Australia, Ordovician
  • Lachlan Orogeny, c. 540 and 440 Ma., Victoria and New South Wales
  • Alice Springs Orogeny in central Australia, Early Carboniferous
  • Hunter-Bowen Orogeny, (c. 260 – 225 Ma) Permian to Triassic, Queensland and New South Wales

Antarctic orogenies

  • Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Myr ago.)
  • Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Myr ago.)
  • Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Myr ago.)
  • Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Myr ago.)
  • Early Ruker orogeny (2000 – 1700 Myr ago.)
  • Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Myr ago.)
  • Beardmore orogeny (633 – 620 Myr ago.)
  • Ross Orogeny (~ 500 Myr ago.)

New Zealand orogenies

  • Tuhua Orogeny (370 to 330 Myr ago)
  • Rangitata Orogeny (142 to 99 million years ago)
  • Kaikoura Orogeny (24 million years ago to present day)

See also

  • Continental collision
  • Plate tectonics

    Common Expressions: orogeny

    Expressions Definition
    Alleghenian orogeny The Alleghenian orogeny or Appalachian orogeny is the geological mountain-forming event (orogeny) that formed the Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Mountains. (references)
    Antler orogeny The Antler orogeny is a mountain-building episode that is named for Antler Peak, at Battle Mountain, Nevada. the orogeny extensively deformed Paleozoic rocks of the Great Basin in Nevada and western Utah during Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time. In the late Devonian, the Antler volcanic island arc, approaching the west coast of North America, which was a passive margin with deep embayments, river deltas and estuaries, in today’s Idaho and Nevada, finally reached the steep slope of the continental shelf and began to uplift deep water deposits [http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/devpaleo.html]. (references)
    Caledonian orogeny The Caledonian orogeny is a mountain building event recorded in the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. This event occurred during the Silurian and Devonian Periods of the Palaeozoic Era, roughly 444-416 Mya. This orogeny has been named for Caledonia, the ancient name of the Scottish highlands. (references)
    Grenville orogeny The Grenville orogeny was an episode of mountain-building (orogeny) associated with the assembly of the ancient supercontinent Rodinia. The Grenville orogeny occurred in the late Proterozoic eon, 1300-1000 million years ago (mya), as numerous continental plates collided around the edges of North America, forming folded mountains. (references)
    Laramide orogeny The Laramide orogeny was a 30 million year period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago, and ended in the Late Paleogene, 40 million years ago. The Laramide orogeny occurred in a series of pulses, with quiescent phases intervening. The major feature that was created by this orogeny was the Rocky Mountains, but evidence of this orogeny can be found from Alaska to northern Mexico, with the easternmost extent of the mountain-building represented by the Black Hills of South Dakota. The phenomenon is named for the Laramie Mountains of eastern Wyoming.(references)
    Nevadan orogeny The Nevadan Orogeny was a major mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic (between about 180 and 146 million years ago). The Nevadan orogeny was the first of three major mountain building episodes to transform Western North America between the Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic Eras, the latter two being the Sevier and Laramide orogeny, chronologically. Much like the two orogenies that followed, the Nevadan was caused by the subduction of oceanic lithosphere at a subduction zone running along the edge of the North American continent. The subduction was relatively slow due to a reduced rate of sea floor spreading, this resulted in relatively cool oceanic crust descending into the lithosphere very quickly, and steeply beneath the edge of the continent. As a result, magma rose from the melting oceanic crust producing a chain of volcanoes located close to continent’s edge. This volcanic activity over the course of several million years would form what is today the Sierra Nevada of California. (references)
    Sevier orogeny The Sevier orogeny was a mountain-building event that affected western North America between approximately 150 million years ago (Ma), and 80 Ma. The Sevier River area of central Utah is the namesake of this event, which was a result of convergent boundary tectonism; a fold-thrust belt formed during this event. (references)
    Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight region. The effects of this orogeny are most apparent throughout New England, but the sediments derived from mountainous areas formed in the northeast can be traced throughout the Appalachians and midcontinental North America. (references)
    Uralian orogeny The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of geological events that raised the Ural Mountains starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, ca. 318-299 and 299-251 Mya, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic-early Jurassic times. In terms of plate tectonics and continental drift, the Uralian resulted from a southwestern movement of the Siberian Plate, catching a smaller landmass, Kazakhstania, between it and the nearly completely assembled supercontinent, Pangaea. The mountains rose as the edge of Kazakhstania rode over the European plate. This event was the last stage in the assembly of Pangaea. (references)
    Variscan orogeny The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. This occurred in early Paleozoic times (from ~390Ma to ~310Ma) and reflects continental collision between Laurasia and Gondwana to form Pangea. This early collision was a precursor to the collision that caused the Variscan-Allegheny-Ouachita orogeny in Pennsylvanian times. (references)
    Source: compiled by the editor from various references; see credits. Top

    Specialty Expressions: orogeny

    Expressions Domain Definition
    Algoman orogeny Mining Orogeny and accompanying granitic emplacement that affected Precambrian rocks of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario about 2.4 billon years ago; it is synonymous with the Kenoran orogeny of the Canadian classification. (references)
    Appalachian orogeny Mining A. Late Paleozoic Era diastrophism beginning perhaps in the Late Devonian Period and continuing until the end of the Permian Period b. A period of intense mountain-building movements in the late Paleozoic Era, during which the deposits in the Appalachian and Cordilleran geosynclines were folded to form the Appalachian and Palaeocordilleran mountains. Equivalent to the Armorican and Hercynian movements in Europe. Syn: Appalachian revolution. (references)
    Laramide orogeny Mining A time of deformation, typically recorded in the eastern Rocky Mountains of the United States, whose several phases extended from late Cretaceous until the end of the Paleocene. It is named for the Laramie Formation of Wyoming and Colorado, probably a synorogenic deposit. (references)
    Nevadan orogeny Mining Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous diastrophism in Western North America. (references)
    Pasadenian orogeny Mining Mid-Pleistocene diastrophism. (references)
    Taconic orogeny Geography Period of intense folding that affected parts of eastern North America at the end of the Ordovician. Source: European Union. (references)
    Source: compiled by the editor from various references; see credits. Top

    Extended Definition: orogeny


    Orogeny

    Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)          Shield      Platform      Orogen      Basin      Large igneous province      Extended crust   Oceanic crust:      0–20 Ma      20–65 Ma      >65 Ma

    Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)

         Shield     Platform     Orogen     Basin     Large igneous province     Extended crust Oceanic crust:     0–20 Ma     20–65 Ma     >65 Ma

    Orogeny (Greek for “mountain generating”) is the process of natural mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within a time frame.

    Orogenic events occur solely as a result of the processes of plate tectonics; the problems which were investigated and resolved by the study of orogenesis contributed greatly to the theory of plate tectonics, coupled with study of flora and fauna, geography and mid ocean ridges in the 1950s and 1960s.

    The physical manifestations of orogenesis (the process of orogeny) are orogenic belts or orogens. An orogen is different from a mountain range in that an orogen may be completely eroded away, and only recognizable by studying (old) rocks that bear the traces of the orogeny. Orogens are usually long, thin, arcuate tracts of rocks which have a pronounced linear structure resulting in terranes or blocks of deformed rocks, separated generally by dipping thrust faults. These thrust faults carry relatively thin plates (which are called nappes, and differ from tectonic plates) of rock in from the margins of the compressing orogen to the core, and are intimately associated with folds and the development of metamorphism.

    The topographic height of orogenic mountains is related to the principle of isostasy, where the gravitational force of the upthrust mountain range of light, continental crust material is balanced against its buoyancy relative to the dense mantle.

    Erosion inevitably takes its course, removing much of the mountains, leaving the core or mountain roots, which may be exhumed by further isostatic events balancing out the loss of elevated mass. This is the final form of the majority of old orogenic belts, being a long arcuate strip of crystalline metamorphic rocks sequentially below younger sediments which are thrust atop them and dip away from the orogenic core.

    History

    Before geology, the presence of mountains was explained in Christian contexts as a result of the Biblical Deluge, for Neoplatonic thought, which influenced early Christian writers, assumed that a perfect Creation would have to have been in the form of a perfect sphere. Such thinking persisted into the eighteenth century.

    Orogeny was used by Amanz Gressly (1840) and Jules Thurmann (1854) as orogenic in terms of the creation of mountain elevations, as the termmountain building was still used to describe the processes.

    Elie de Beaumont (1852) used the evocative “Jaws of a Vise” theory to explain orogeny, but was more concerned with the height rather than the implicit structures orogenic belts created and contained. His theory essentially held that mountains were created by the squeezing of certain rocks.

    Eduard Suess (1875) recognised the importance of horizontal movement of rocks. The concept of a precursor geosyncline or initial downward warping of the solid earth (Hall, 1859) prompted James Dwight Dana (1873) to include the concept of compression in the theories surrounding mountain-building. With hindsight, we can discount Dana’s conjecture that this contraction was due to the cooling of the Earth (aka the cooling earth theory).

    The cooling Earth theory was the chief paradigm for most geologists until the 1960s. It was, in the context of orogeny, contested hotly by proponents of vertical movements in the crust (similar to tephrotectonics), or convection within the asthenosphere or mantle.

    Gustav Steinmann (1906) recognised different classes of orogenic belts, including the Alpine type orogenic belt, typified by a flysch and molasse geometry to the sediments; ophiolite sequences, tholeiitic basalts, and a nappe style fold structure.

    In terms of recognising orogeny as an eventLeopold von Buch (1855) recognised that orogenies could be placed in time by bracketing between the youngest deformed rock and the oldest undeformed rock, a principle which is still in use today, though commonly investigated by geochronology using radiometric dating.

    H.J. Zwart (1967) drew attention to the metamorphic differences in orogenic belts, proposing three types, modified by W. S. Pitcher (1979);

    • Hercynotype (back-arc basin type);
      • Shallow, low-pressure metamorphism; thin metamorphic zones
      • Metamorphism dependent on increase in temperature
      • Abundant granite and migmatite
      • Few ophiolites, ultramafic rocks virtually absent
      • very wide orogen with small and slow uplift
      • nappe structures rare
    • Alpinotype (ocean trench style);
      • deep, high pressure, thick metamorphic zones
      • metamorphism of many facies, dependent on decrease in pressure
      • few granites or migmatites
      • abundant ophiolites with ultramafic rocks
      • Relatively narrow orogen with large and rapid uplift
      • Nappe structures predominant
    • Cordilleran (arc) type;
      • dominated by calc-alkaline igneous rocks,andesites, granite batholiths
      • general lack of migmatites, low geothermal gradient
      • lack of ophiolite and abyssal sedimentary rocks (black shale, chert, etcetera)
      • low-pressure metamorphism, moderate uplift
      • lack of nappes

    The advent of plate tectonics has explained the vast majority of orogenic belts and their features. The cooling earth theory (principally advanced byDescartes) is dispensed with, and tephrotectonic style vertical movements have been explained primarily by the process of isostasy.

    Some oddities exist, where simple collisional tectonics are modified in a transform plate boundary, such as in New Zealand, or where island arc orogenies, for instance in New Guinea occur away from a continental backstop. Further complications such as Proterozoic continent-continent collisional orogens, explicitly the Musgrave Block in Australia, previously inexplicable (see Dennis, 1982) are being brought to light with the advent of seismic imaging techniques which can resolve the deep crust structure of orogenic belts.

    Physiography

    The process of orogeny can take tens of millions of years and build mountains from plains or even the ocean floor. Orogeny can occur due to continental collision or volcanic activity. Frequently, rock formations that undergo orogeny are severely deformed and undergo metamorphism. During orogeny, deeply buried rocks may be pushed to the surface. Sea bottom and near shore material may cover some or all of the orogenic area. If the orogeny is due to two continents colliding, the resulting mountains can be very high (see Himalaya).

    Orogeny usually produces long linear structures, known as orogenic belts. Generally, orogenic belts consist of long parallel strips of rock exhibiting similar characteristics along the length of the belt. Orogenic belts are associated with subduction zones, which consume crust, produce volcanoes, and build island arcs. These island arcs may be added to a continent during an orogenic event.

    List of orogenies

    This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

    North American orogenies

    • Wopmay orogeny
      • Along western edge of Canadian shield, 2100-1900 mya.
    • Hudsonian orogeny or Trans-Hudson orogeny
      • Extends from Hudson Bay west into Saskatchewan then south through the western Dakotas and Nebraska. Result of the collision of the Superior craton with the Hearne craton and the Wyoming craton during the Proterozoic.
      • Lasted from 2000-1800 mya.
    • Penokean orogeny
      • Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, U. S. A. and southern Ontario, Canada, 1850-1840 mya.
    • Big Sky orogeny
      • Proterozoic collision between the Hearne craton and the Wyoming craton in southwest Montana, 1770 mya.
    • Ivanpah orogeny
      • Mojave province, south western USA
    • Yavapai orogeny
      • mid to south western USA, circa 1750 mya.
    • Mazatzal orogeny
      • mid to south western USA, circa 1600 mya.
    • Grenville orogeny
      • Worldwide during the late Proterozoic, 1300-1000 mya. Associated with the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. Formed folded mountains in Eastern North America from Newfoundland to North Carolina, 1100-1000 mya.
    Taconic orogeny

    Taconic orogeny
    • Caledonian orogeny
      • the Taconic phase in the NE U.S. and Canada during the Ordovician Period.
      • the Acadian phase in the Eastern U.S. during Silurian and Devonian Periods.
    • Appalachian orogeny, usually seen as the same as the Variscan orogeny in Europe.
      • Appalachian Mountains is a well studied orogenic belt resulting from a late Paleozoic collision between North America and Africa.
      • Taconic orogeny
      • Acadian orogeny
      • Alleghenian orogeny
    • Ouachita orogeny
      • Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma is an orogenic belt that dates from the late Paleozoic Era and is most likely a continuation of the Appalachian orogeny west across the Mississippi embayment - Reelfoot Rift zone.
    • Antler orogeny
      • Ancestral Sierra Nevada western United States.
      • Late Devonian – early Mississippian.
    • Innuitian orogeny or Ellesmerian orogeny
      • Innuitian Mountains, Canadian Arctic, extending from Ellesmere Island to Melville Island, Mississippian 345 mya.
    • Sonoma orogeny
      • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 270 – 240 million years ago.
    • Nevadan orogeny
      • Developed along western North America during the Jurassic Period.
    • Sevier orogeny
      • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 140 – 50 million years ago.
    • Laramide orogeny
      • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 40-70 Myr ago.

    European orogenies

    • The Caledonian orogeny
      • Formation of the highlands of western Norway, Britain and Ireland in the Silurian Period.
    • Uralian orogeny
      • Formation of the Ural Mountains, Eurasia, during the Permian Period.
    • The Variscan orogeny (also called the Hercynian orogeny)
      • Formation of the mountains of western Iberia, SW Ireland, SW England, central France, southern Germany and Czechoslovakia during the Devonian and Carboniferous Periods.
    • The Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
      • the Formation of the Alps during the Eocene through Miocene Periods.
      • the Carpathian orogeny building the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe during the Miocene Period.
      • the Hellenic orogeny in Greece and the Aegean area during Eocene through Miocene Periods.
    • Ongoing (happening now):
      • the Mediterranean Ridge.

    Asian orogenies

    • The Aravalli-Delhi Orogen (precambrian)
    • The Altaid Orogeny (Paleozoic)
    • The Cimmerian and Cathayasian orogenies
      • Active through Triassic and Jurassic Periods along south and southeast Asia.
    • Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
      • The Himalayan orogeny, forming the Himalaya Mountains, as a result of the ongoing collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate.

    South American orogenies

    African orogenies

    Australian orogenies

    • Sleaford Orogeny (2440-2420 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
    • Glenburgh Orogeny (c. 2005 – 1920 Ma), Glenburgh Terrane, Western Australia.
    • Kimban Orogeny (c. 1845-1700 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
    • Yapungku Orogeny (c. 1700 Ma), North Yilgarn craton margin, Western Australia
    • Mangaroon Orogeny (c.1680 – 1620 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
    • Kararan Orogeny (1650- Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
    • Barramundi Orogeny (c. 1600 Ma), MacArthur Basin, northern Australia
    • Isan Orogeny, c. 1600 Ma, Mt Isa Block, Queensland
    • Olarian Orogeny, Olary Block, South Australia
    • Capricorn Orogeny, Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia
    • Musgrave Orogeny (c. 1080 Ma), Musgrave Block, Central Australia.
    • Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920 – 850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
    • Petermann Orogeny (c. 550-535 Ma late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian), Central Australia
    • Delamerian Orogeny, South Australia and Victoria, Australia, Ordovician
    • Lachlan Orogeny, c. 540 and 440 Ma., Victoria and New South Wales
    • Alice Springs Orogeny in central Australia, Early Carboniferous
    • Hunter-Bowen Orogeny, (c. 260 – 225 Ma) Permian to Triassic, Queensland and New South Wales

    Antarctic orogenies

    • Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Myr ago.)
    • Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Myr ago.)
    • Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Myr ago.)
    • Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Myr ago.)
    • Early Ruker orogeny (2000 – 1700 Myr ago.)
    • Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Myr ago.)
    • Beardmore orogeny (633 – 620 Myr ago.)
    • Ross Orogeny (~ 500 Myr ago.)

    New Zealand orogenies

    • Tuhua Orogeny (370 to 330 Myr ago)
    • Rangitata Orogeny (142 to 99 million years ago)
    • Kaikoura Orogeny (24 million years ago to present day)

    See also

    • Continental collision
    • Plate tectonics

Common Expressions: orogeny

Expressions Definition
Alleghenian orogeny The Alleghenian orogeny or Appalachian orogeny is the geological mountain-forming event (orogeny) that formed the Appalachian Mountains and Allegheny Mountains. (references)
Antler orogeny The Antler orogeny is a mountain-building episode that is named for Antler Peak, at Battle Mountain, Nevada. the orogeny extensively deformed Paleozoic rocks of the Great Basin in Nevada and western Utah during Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time. In the late Devonian, the Antler volcanic island arc, approaching the west coast of North America, which was a passive margin with deep embayments, river deltas and estuaries, in today’s Idaho and Nevada, finally reached the steep slope of the continental shelf and began to uplift deep water deposits [http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/devpaleo.html]. (references)
Caledonian orogeny The Caledonian orogeny is a mountain building event recorded in the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. This event occurred during the Silurian and Devonian Periods of the Palaeozoic Era, roughly 444-416 Mya. This orogeny has been named for Caledonia, the ancient name of the Scottish highlands. (references)
Grenville orogeny The Grenville orogeny was an episode of mountain-building (orogeny) associated with the assembly of the ancient supercontinent Rodinia. The Grenville orogeny occurred in the late Proterozoic eon, 1300-1000 million years ago (mya), as numerous continental plates collided around the edges of North America, forming folded mountains. (references)
Laramide orogeny The Laramide orogeny was a 30 million year period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago, and ended in the Late Paleogene, 40 million years ago. The Laramide orogeny occurred in a series of pulses, with quiescent phases intervening. The major feature that was created by this orogeny was the Rocky Mountains, but evidence of this orogeny can be found from Alaska to northern Mexico, with the easternmost extent of the mountain-building represented by the Black Hills of South Dakota. The phenomenon is named for the Laramie Mountains of eastern Wyoming.(references)
Nevadan orogeny The Nevadan Orogeny was a major mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic (between about 180 and 146 million years ago). The Nevadan orogeny was the first of three major mountain building episodes to transform Western North America between the Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic Eras, the latter two being the Sevier and Laramide orogeny, chronologically. Much like the two orogenies that followed, the Nevadan was caused by the subduction of oceanic lithosphere at a subduction zone running along the edge of the North American continent. The subduction was relatively slow due to a reduced rate of sea floor spreading, this resulted in relatively cool oceanic crust descending into the lithosphere very quickly, and steeply beneath the edge of the continent. As a result, magma rose from the melting oceanic crust producing a chain of volcanoes located close to continent’s edge. This volcanic activity over the course of several million years would form what is today the Sierra Nevada of California. (references)
Sevier orogeny The Sevier orogeny was a mountain-building event that affected western North America between approximately 150 million years ago (Ma), and 80 Ma. The Sevier River area of central Utah is the namesake of this event, which was a result of convergent boundary tectonism; a fold-thrust belt formed during this event. (references)
Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight region. The effects of this orogeny are most apparent throughout New England, but the sediments derived from mountainous areas formed in the northeast can be traced throughout the Appalachians and midcontinental North America. (references)
Uralian orogeny The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of geological events that raised the Ural Mountains starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, ca. 318-299 and 299-251 Mya, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic-early Jurassic times. In terms of plate tectonics and continental drift, the Uralian resulted from a southwestern movement of the Siberian Plate, catching a smaller landmass, Kazakhstania, between it and the nearly completely assembled supercontinent, Pangaea. The mountains rose as the edge of Kazakhstania rode over the European plate. This event was the last stage in the assembly of Pangaea. (references)
Variscan orogeny The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. This occurred in early Paleozoic times (from ~390Ma to ~310Ma) and reflects continental collision between Laurasia and Gondwana to form Pangea. This early collision was a precursor to the collision that caused the Variscan-Allegheny-Ouachita orogeny in Pennsylvanian times. (references)

Source: compiled by the editor from various references; see credits.

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Specialty Expressions: orogeny

Expressions Domain Definition
Algoman orogeny Mining Orogeny and accompanying granitic emplacement that affected Precambrian rocks of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario about 2.4 billon years ago; it is synonymous with the Kenoran orogeny of the Canadian classification. (references)
Appalachian orogeny Mining A. Late Paleozoic Era diastrophism beginning perhaps in the Late Devonian Period and continuing until the end of the Permian Period b. A period of intense mountain-building movements in the late Paleozoic Era, during which the deposits in the Appalachian and Cordilleran geosynclines were folded to form the Appalachian and Palaeocordilleran mountains. Equivalent to the Armorican and Hercynian movements in Europe. Syn: Appalachian revolution. (references)
Laramide orogeny Mining A time of deformation, typically recorded in the eastern Rocky Mountains of the United States, whose several phases extended from late Cretaceous until the end of the Paleocene. It is named for the Laramie Formation of Wyoming and Colorado, probably a synorogenic deposit. (references)
Nevadan orogeny Mining Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous diastrophism in Western North America. (references)
Pasadenian orogeny Mining Mid-Pleistocene diastrophism. (references)
Taconic orogeny Geography Period of intense folding that affected parts of eastern North America at the end of the Ordovician. Source: European Union. (references)

Source: compiled by the editor from various references; see credits.

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Extended Definition: orogeny


Orogeny

Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)          Shield      Platform      Orogen      Basin      Large igneous province      Extended crust   Oceanic crust:      0–20 Ma      20–65 Ma      >65 Ma

Geologic provinces of the world (USGS)

     Shield     Platform     Orogen     Basin     Large igneous province     Extended crust Oceanic crust:     0–20 Ma     20–65 Ma     >65 Ma

Orogeny (Greek for “mountain generating”) is the process of natural mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within a time frame.

Orogenic events occur solely as a result of the processes of plate tectonics; the problems which were investigated and resolved by the study of orogenesis contributed greatly to the theory of plate tectonics, coupled with study of flora and fauna, geography and mid ocean ridges in the 1950s and 1960s.

The physical manifestations of orogenesis (the process of orogeny) are orogenic belts or orogens. An orogen is different from a mountain range in that an orogen may be completely eroded away, and only recognizable by studying (old) rocks that bear the traces of the orogeny. Orogens are usually long, thin, arcuate tracts of rocks which have a pronounced linear structure resulting in terranes or blocks of deformed rocks, separated generally by dipping thrust faults. These thrust faults carry relatively thin plates (which are called nappes, and differ from tectonic plates) of rock in from the margins of the compressing orogen to the core, and are intimately associated with folds and the development of metamorphism.

The topographic height of orogenic mountains is related to the principle of isostasy, where the gravitational force of the upthrust mountain range of light, continental crust material is balanced against its buoyancy relative to the dense mantle.

Erosion inevitably takes its course, removing much of the mountains, leaving the core or mountain roots, which may be exhumed by further isostatic events balancing out the loss of elevated mass. This is the final form of the majority of old orogenic belts, being a long arcuate strip of crystalline metamorphic rocks sequentially below younger sediments which are thrust atop them and dip away from the orogenic core.

History

Before geology, the presence of mountains was explained in Christian contexts as a result of the Biblical Deluge, for Neoplatonic thought, which influenced early Christian writers, assumed that a perfect Creation would have to have been in the form of a perfect sphere. Such thinking persisted into the eighteenth century.

Orogeny was used by Amanz Gressly (1840) and Jules Thurmann (1854) as orogenic in terms of the creation of mountain elevations, as the termmountain building was still used to describe the processes.

Elie de Beaumont (1852) used the evocative “Jaws of a Vise” theory to explain orogeny, but was more concerned with the height rather than the implicit structures orogenic belts created and contained. His theory essentially held that mountains were created by the squeezing of certain rocks.

Eduard Suess (1875) recognised the importance of horizontal movement of rocks. The concept of a precursor geosyncline or initial downward warping of the solid earth (Hall, 1859) prompted James Dwight Dana (1873) to include the concept of compression in the theories surrounding mountain-building. With hindsight, we can discount Dana’s conjecture that this contraction was due to the cooling of the Earth (aka the cooling earth theory).

The cooling Earth theory was the chief paradigm for most geologists until the 1960s. It was, in the context of orogeny, contested hotly by proponents of vertical movements in the crust (similar to tephrotectonics), or convection within the asthenosphere or mantle.

Gustav Steinmann (1906) recognised different classes of orogenic belts, including the Alpine type orogenic belt, typified by a flysch and molasse geometry to the sediments; ophiolite sequences, tholeiitic basalts, and a nappe style fold structure.

In terms of recognising orogeny as an eventLeopold von Buch (1855) recognised that orogenies could be placed in time by bracketing between the youngest deformed rock and the oldest undeformed rock, a principle which is still in use today, though commonly investigated by geochronology using radiometric dating.

H.J. Zwart (1967) drew attention to the metamorphic differences in orogenic belts, proposing three types, modified by W. S. Pitcher (1979);

  • Hercynotype (back-arc basin type);
    • Shallow, low-pressure metamorphism; thin metamorphic zones
    • Metamorphism dependent on increase in temperature
    • Abundant granite and migmatite
    • Few ophiolites, ultramafic rocks virtually absent
    • very wide orogen with small and slow uplift
    • nappe structures rare
  • Alpinotype (ocean trench style);
    • deep, high pressure, thick metamorphic zones
    • metamorphism of many facies, dependent on decrease in pressure
    • few granites or migmatites
    • abundant ophiolites with ultramafic rocks
    • Relatively narrow orogen with large and rapid uplift
    • Nappe structures predominant
  • Cordilleran (arc) type;
    • dominated by calc-alkaline igneous rocks,andesites, granite batholiths
    • general lack of migmatites, low geothermal gradient
    • lack of ophiolite and abyssal sedimentary rocks (black shale, chert, etcetera)
    • low-pressure metamorphism, moderate uplift
    • lack of nappes

The advent of plate tectonics has explained the vast majority of orogenic belts and their features. The cooling earth theory (principally advanced byDescartes) is dispensed with, and tephrotectonic style vertical movements have been explained primarily by the process of isostasy.

Some oddities exist, where simple collisional tectonics are modified in a transform plate boundary, such as in New Zealand, or where island arc orogenies, for instance in New Guinea occur away from a continental backstop. Further complications such as Proterozoic continent-continent collisional orogens, explicitly the Musgrave Block in Australia, previously inexplicable (see Dennis, 1982) are being brought to light with the advent of seismic imaging techniques which can resolve the deep crust structure of orogenic belts.

Physiography

The process of orogeny can take tens of millions of years and build mountains from plains or even the ocean floor. Orogeny can occur due to continental collision or volcanic activity. Frequently, rock formations that undergo orogeny are severely deformed and undergo metamorphism. During orogeny, deeply buried rocks may be pushed to the surface. Sea bottom and near shore material may cover some or all of the orogenic area. If the orogeny is due to two continents colliding, the resulting mountains can be very high (see Himalaya).

Orogeny usually produces long linear structures, known as orogenic belts. Generally, orogenic belts consist of long parallel strips of rock exhibiting similar characteristics along the length of the belt. Orogenic belts are associated with subduction zones, which consume crust, produce volcanoes, and build island arcs. These island arcs may be added to a continent during an orogenic event.

List of orogenies

North American orogenies

  • Wopmay orogeny
    • Along western edge of Canadian shield, 2100-1900 mya.
  • Hudsonian orogeny or Trans-Hudson orogeny
    • Extends from Hudson Bay west into Saskatchewan then south through the western Dakotas and Nebraska. Result of the collision of the Superior craton with the Hearne craton and the Wyoming craton during the Proterozoic.
    • Lasted from 2000-1800 mya.
  • Penokean orogeny
    • Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, U. S. A. and southern Ontario, Canada, 1850-1840 mya.
  • Big Sky orogeny
    • Proterozoic collision between the Hearne craton and the Wyoming craton in southwest Montana, 1770 mya.
  • Ivanpah orogeny
    • Mojave province, south western USA
  • Yavapai orogeny
    • mid to south western USA, circa 1750 mya.
  • Mazatzal orogeny
    • mid to south western USA, circa 1600 mya.
  • Grenville orogeny
    • Worldwide during the late Proterozoic, 1300-1000 mya. Associated with the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. Formed folded mountains in Eastern North America from Newfoundland to North Carolina, 1100-1000 mya.
Taconic orogeny

Taconic orogeny
  • Caledonian orogeny
    • the Taconic phase in the NE U.S. and Canada during the Ordovician Period.
    • the Acadian phase in the Eastern U.S. during Silurian and Devonian Periods.
  • Appalachian orogeny, usually seen as the same as the Variscan orogeny in Europe.
    • Appalachian Mountains is a well studied orogenic belt resulting from a late Paleozoic collision between North America and Africa.
    • Taconic orogeny
    • Acadian orogeny
    • Alleghenian orogeny
  • Ouachita orogeny
    • Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma is an orogenic belt that dates from the late Paleozoic Era and is most likely a continuation of the Appalachian orogeny west across the Mississippi embayment - Reelfoot Rift zone.
  • Antler orogeny
    • Ancestral Sierra Nevada western United States.
    • Late Devonian – early Mississippian.
  • Innuitian orogeny or Ellesmerian orogeny
    • Innuitian Mountains, Canadian Arctic, extending from Ellesmere Island to Melville Island, Mississippian 345 mya.
  • Sonoma orogeny
    • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 270 – 240 million years ago.
  • Nevadan orogeny
    • Developed along western North America during the Jurassic Period.
  • Sevier orogeny
    • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 140 – 50 million years ago.
  • Laramide orogeny
    • Rocky Mountains, western North America, 40-70 Myr ago.

European orogenies

  • The Caledonian orogeny
    • Formation of the highlands of western Norway, Britain and Ireland in the Silurian Period.
  • Uralian orogeny
    • Formation of the Ural Mountains, Eurasia, during the Permian Period.
  • The Variscan orogeny (also called the Hercynian orogeny)
    • Formation of the mountains of western Iberia, SW Ireland, SW England, central France, southern Germany and Czechoslovakia during the Devonian and Carboniferous Periods.
  • The Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
    • the Formation of the Alps during the Eocene through Miocene Periods.
    • the Carpathian orogeny building the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe during the Miocene Period.
    • the Hellenic orogeny in Greece and the Aegean area during Eocene through Miocene Periods.
  • Ongoing (happening now):
    • the Mediterranean Ridge.

Asian orogenies

  • The Aravalli-Delhi Orogen (precambrian)
  • The Altaid Orogeny (Paleozoic)
  • The Cimmerian and Cathayasian orogenies
    • Active through Triassic and Jurassic Periods along south and southeast Asia.
  • Alpine orogeny, encompassing:
    • The Himalayan orogeny, forming the Himalaya Mountains, as a result of the ongoing collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate.

South American orogenies

African orogenies

Australian orogenies

  • Sleaford Orogeny (2440-2420 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
  • Glenburgh Orogeny (c. 2005 – 1920 Ma), Glenburgh Terrane, Western Australia.
  • Kimban Orogeny (c. 1845-1700 Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
  • Yapungku Orogeny (c. 1700 Ma), North Yilgarn craton margin, Western Australia
  • Mangaroon Orogeny (c.1680 – 1620 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
  • Kararan Orogeny (1650- Ma), Gawler Craton, South Australia
  • Barramundi Orogeny (c. 1600 Ma), MacArthur Basin, northern Australia
  • Isan Orogeny, c. 1600 Ma, Mt Isa Block, Queensland
  • Olarian Orogeny, Olary Block, South Australia
  • Capricorn Orogeny, Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia
  • Musgrave Orogeny (c. 1080 Ma), Musgrave Block, Central Australia.
  • Edmundian Orogeny (c. 920 – 850 Ma), Gascoyne Complex, Western Australia.
  • Petermann Orogeny (c. 550-535 Ma late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian), Central Australia
  • Delamerian Orogeny, South Australia and Victoria, Australia, Ordovician
  • Lachlan Orogeny, c. 540 and 440 Ma., Victoria and New South Wales
  • Alice Springs Orogeny in central Australia, Early Carboniferous
  • Hunter-Bowen Orogeny, (c. 260 – 225 Ma) Permian to Triassic, Queensland and New South Wales

Antarctic orogenies

  • Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Myr ago.)
  • Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Myr ago.)
  • Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Myr ago.)
  • Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Myr ago.)
  • Early Ruker orogeny (2000 – 1700 Myr ago.)
  • Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Myr ago.)
  • Beardmore orogeny (633 – 620 Myr ago.)
  • Ross Orogeny (~ 500 Myr ago.)

New Zealand orogenies

  • Tuhua Orogeny (370 to 330 Myr ago)
  • Rangitata Orogeny (142 to 99 million years ago)
  • Kaikoura Orogeny (24 million years ago to present day)

See also

  • Continental collision
  • Plate tectonics